MAHEIN NIA LIAN NO. 13: Komunikadu da Imprenza: Kna’ar Falintil – Forsa Defesa Timor-Leste (F-FDTL) iha Faze Ukun Rasik A’an husi 2002 – 2010.

Fundasaun Mahein 28 Outubru 2010

Iha Fundasaun Mahein nia Lian edisaun no. 13 fokus ba iha Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (FALINTIL) hatudu ona nia didikasaun no komitmentu durante okupasaun Indonezia ne’ebe sai hanesan mos fundasaun ida ba F-FDTL sai Defesa Nasional ne’ebe iha prinsipiu neutraliadade iha sistema politik demokrasia Timor-Leste ninia. Mesmu F-FDTL nia abut husi partidu Fretilin ne’ebe nudar organizasaun hahoris naran Falintil, maibe transformasaun Falintil ba F-FDTL tenki iha prinsipiu imparsialidade atu garantia independesia no submete lolos nia a’an ba regras no leis iha rai Republika Demokratika Timor-Leste. Timor-Leste tama faze foun ona ho sistema forsa defesa nasional nebe sei buka lolos koloka kna’ar forsa defesa ninia atu labele iha konflitus politika siguransa iha rai laran. Premeira ves iha Timor-Leste nia istoria akontese instituisaun siguransa nasional hanesan F-FDTL no Polisia Nasional Timor-Leste (PNTL) sai hanesan hun ba konflitu no instabilidade iha tinan 2006.

Timor-Leste parese hatene katak laos selebrasaun mak sai hanesan objetivu fundamental ida ba instituisaun militar para tinan-tinan selebra nia aniversariu, maibe instituisaun militar ne’e persiza hare fila fali katak iha ona tinan walu (8) nia laran sai hanesan instituisaun formal militar ida iha nasaun demokratiku, persiza komesa hametin fundasaun disiplina no profesionalismu militar ba membru sira, ho objetivu katak militar tenki ho mentalidade atu defende interese povu laos interese institusionalidade (institusionalismu). Kestaun ne’e bele hare klean liu, tamba instituisaun laos atu representa grupu ou instituisaun maibe tenki halo sira nia kna’ar tuir konstituisaun haruka, “servisu militar halo tuir lei haruka.” Bazeia legal ne’e importante tebes ba membru militar sira wainhira sira halao servisu militar ninia no nee mos bele prevene politiku nain sira atu intervene ba organizasaun militar ninia. Leitura ida nee tenta atu examina kna’ar Forsa Defesa Timor-Leste liu husi loron nia asume responsabilidade hanesan forsa defeza nasional Timor-Leste iha 20 Maiu 2002 to’o 2010.

Wainhira asembleia nasional aprova konstituisaun no Timor-oan sira ofisialmente deklara Timor-Leste sai rai ida soberanu iha loron 20 Maiu 2002, iha tempu hanesan F-FDTL mos sai formalmente representa militar nasaun ida. Iha kapasidade profesionalismu no fasilidade ne’ebe limitadu teb-tebes, Timor-Leste konsege hahu instituisaun militar ida ne’ebe ho fiar ida katak sei lori interese nasional liu sasan hotu-hotu no garantia soberanu Timor-Leste. Iha FM nia relatoriu ne’e deskobre katak “dezenvolve forsa ida atu proteze Timor-oan husi ameasa liur, tulun azensia guvernu sira no hari’i ami nia rai.” Boa vontade husi Timor-Leste atu hari’i instituisaun militar hetan reasaun positivu husi komunidade internasional liu husi asistensia nasaun bar-barak. Liu husi kanal bilaterais husi Portugal, Australia, Estadu Unidos, Cina, Malaizia noTailandia liu husi treinamentu rai laran no liur, fo ikipamentu, hari’i fasilidade no treinamentu kona ba ajuda logistiku ninia.

Iha FM nia relatoriu ne’e mos deklara katak politikamente to’o ohin loron strutura liders F-FDTL sei domina husi eis membrus Falintil sira i maioria sira hotu foin mak apariende no hetan treinamentu profesional militar iha tempu badak idepois Timor-Leste hetan independensia. Nee mos sai obstaklu ida ba mediu prazu ninia atu dezenvolve lolos instituisaun militar ida ho independente no profesional tamba sei defisil ituan atu haketak Falinitl no F-FDTL.  Rees ispilika katak, “momentu transformasaun F-FDTL hanesan halo lalais liu, ne’e duni defisil ituan haketak F-FDTL husi nia abut Falintil, atu haketak sira bele hamosu interpertasaun negativu no bele interperta sala ba nia future dirasaun.” Husi kestaun nee bele dehan katak F-FDTL sidauk halao nia funsaun totalmente hanesan instituisaun militar profesional tamba emosionalmente no pisikoloziamente membrus eis Falintil sei defisil adapta no koloka sira nia a’an ba regras instituisaun militar. Istoria Falintil bele influenza hahalok no politika F-FDTL ninia iha kualker tempu.

Iha relatoriu ne’e mos FM rekomenda ba estadu no guvernu Timor-Leste iha area balun hakas a’an ona atu dezenvolve ninia instituisaun forsa armada sai hanesan militar profesional nebe hakruk a’an ba povu nia interese, espesialmente sivil mak kontrola institusaun militar ninia (Military under civilian control). Kestaun nee bele aplika iha Timor-Leste wainhira elementus hotu-hotu iha vontade politika atu kaer metin prinsipiu militar iha rai demokratiku. Timor-Leste persiza kria kondisaun ida par povu mak bele halo kontrolizasaun ba kna’ar militar ninia, liu-liu sosidade sivil bele iha kapasidade atu bele halo kontribuisaun no dezenvolvimentu atu kontrola lalaok militar. “Iha rai ida demokratika, sosidade sivil tenki bele hanoin halo nusa bele fo apoiu ideas par bele kontrola milita. Konaba aspeitu ida ne’e, estadu no guvernu nebe kaer pasta politika forsa defesa nia persiza mos involve sosidade sivil atu bele hatene klean liu kona ba politika defesa nia. Ministeriu Defesa hanesan parte sivil halo dadauk politika defesa nia, purtantu Timor-Leste bele dehan sivil mos hola parte ba prosesu hari’i funsionamentu F-FDTL.” Prosesu ne’e bele interperta katak sivil komesa iha parte ida kontrola lalaok militar nia liu husi alokasaun orsamentu halo politika atu hari’i no hametin instituisaun militar tuir regras demokrasia Timor-Leste ninia.

Instituisaun militar persiza hadia mentalidade membrus sira husi veteranu resistensia ba militar profesional no hanoin nasional ba kontekstu standar internasional. Membru sira persiza hasae sira nia matenek liu husi trainamentu no haruka sira bele iskola tan iha universidade konaba assuntus lei nian, justisa, direitus, saude buat seluk-seluk tan. Unversidade sira rai laran no liur mos bele servisu hamutuk ho instituisaun militar bele iha intreasaun enter estudante sira atraves husi siminariu, estaziu, peskiza, despotu, servisu sosial ho parte seluk-seluk tan. Instituisaun militar persiza loke a’an ba publiku para simu kritikas, sugestaun no intereasaun direitamente entre povu ho membru militar sira, nune sira bele hatene no habesik a’an ba instituisaun nee, loke mos debates ou siminariu bar-barak konaba kna’ar F-FDTL iha rai ida demokratiku.

Atu hatene klean liu konaba asuntu ne’e bele kontaktu.

Hetan relatoriu iha ne’e.

Nélson Belo,

Direktor Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

Tlp: +670 737 4222

Fundasaun Mahein, October  28,  2010

Press Release

Falintil-Forca Defensa Timor-Leste (F-FDTL) in the Era of Independence, 2002 to 2010.

In the 13th Mahein’s Voice (Mahein Nia Lian No. 13 in English) focuses to Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (FALINTIL) showed its dedication and commitment during the Indonesian occupation and became the foundation for F-FDTL, a national defense force that has the principle of neutrality within the democratic political system of Timor Leste. Although F-FDTL’s roots come from the FRETILIN party  the organization that produced the name FALINTIL- the transformation of FALINTIL to F-FDTL must have the principle of impartiality, in order to guarantee independence and truly submit itself to the regulations and laws of the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste. Timor Leste has entered a new phase  that searches for the right place and function of the defense force so that there is no conflict of security policy  in the country. For the first time in the history of Timor Leste, national security institutions such as F-FDTL and Timor Leste National Police (PNTL) became a major source of conflict and instability in 2006.

Timor Leste surely knows that celebrating their aniversary every year is not the fundamental objective of the military, but that the military institution needs to focus on how during eight years of becoming a formal military institution in a democratic country, they have continued to strengthen the foundation of discipline and military professionalism of their members, with a purpose of creating a military with a mentality of defending the interests of the people, not the interest of the institution (Institutionalism). An institution should not represent groups or institutions, but do its duty as the constitution requires. “Military duty is to follow the order of the Constitution”. This legal basis is very important for military members when they carry out their military duties as this can prevent politicians from intervening with military organisations. This article attempts to examine the role of F-FDTL since the day it acquired responsiblity as Timor Leste’s national defense force from 20 May 2002 until the present.

When the National Assembly approved the constitution and the East Timorese declared Timor Leste a sovereign nation-state on 20 May 2002,  the  F-FDTL also formally became the military representative of this country. With a very limited professional capacity and a lack of facilities, Timor Leste managed to form a military institution with the belief of considering the national interest over other things and guaranteeing the sovereignity of Timor Leste. In FM’s report also found that, “develop a force to protect the people of Timor Leste from outside threat, help the governmental agencies, and build our country”. The goodwill of Timor Leste in forming a military institution recieved positive feedback from the international community through the assistace of many countries – bilateral agreements with Portugal, Australia, the United States, China, Malaysia, and Thailand regarding both in-country training and training abroad, providing equipment, building facilities, and training about logistic assistance

In FM’s report said that, politically, the leadership structure of F-FDTL to this date is still dominated by the ex-members of FALINTIL and a majority of them learned and received professional military training for only a very short time after Timor Leste gained its independence. This is an obstacle to really developing a military institution that is independent and professional because it is  diffcult to separate FALINTIL and F-FDTL. Edward Rees explains that “the moment of F-FDTL transformation was too soon so it is quite difficult to separate F-FDTL from its root FALINTIL because separating them could cause negative interpretation and wrong interpretation to its future direction.” From this case, it could be said that F-FDTL has not achieved its function completely as a professional military institution because emotionally and psycologically members of ex FALINTIL have difficulty adapting and putting themselves under the regulations of the military institution. The history of FALINTIL has the ability to influence the behavior and politics of F-FDTL at any time.

In the report FM also recommends that, the State or governent of Timor Leste has forced their army institution in some ways to become a more professional military that bows to the interest of the people, especially by putting the military under civilian control. This case will be fully applied in Timor Leste when all the members have the political willingness to hold the military to the principles of a democratic country. Timor Leste needs to create a condition where its’ people can control the military. Civil society can contribute to the development of military activities. “In a democratic country, civil society should be able to think about how to give supportive ideas to control the military. Along these lines, the government that makes defence force policy also needs to involve civil society more, in order for them to know more about defense policy.The Ministry of Defense, as well as civil society, is making defence policy. It could be said that civilians can also take part in the process of development of F-FDTL in Timor Leste. This process could be interpreted as civilians begining to control military activity through budget allocation to make policies that build and strenghten the military institution according to the regulations of democratic Timor Leste.

The military institution needs to improve the mentality of its members, moving from that ofa resistance organization to that of a professional military, who think in the context of international standards. They need to increase their knowledge through training and also attend university where they can study law, justice, rights, health and other things. Universities in this country and abroad can also work together with the military institution to have an interaction between students.  This could involve seminars, research, sports, social services, and other components. The military institution needs to be open when receiving public criticisms and suggestions, and increase their direct interactions with the people so that they know and get close to the institution. Open debates and seminars about the role of F-FDTL in a democratic country are also useful in helping the public understand what F-FDTL actually does.

For more informasaun on this issue, please contact

To download the report in english click here.

Nélson Belo,

Director of Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

tlp :  +670 737 4222

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