Fundasaun Mahein nia Aniversariu ba Daruak

Ohin 29 Junho 2011 Fundasaun Mahein nia aniversariu ba daruak fo honra ba saudozo Komandante Ular Rihik (Virgilio dos Anjos, matebian iha 2010).

Mahein iha Timor Post 29 Junho 2011

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Mahein Nia Lian No. 17: Komunikadu Imprenza Veteranu sira iha Timor Leste Dezde Krize tinan 2006 nian

Mahein nia Lian iha edisaun  17 (pdf) sei deskuite konaba Veteranu.  Relatoriu ne katak, problema veteranu nian sira ne’e sei nunka bele mate se bainhira veteranu sira ida-idak no mós organizasaun veteranu nian sira la kontente ho prosesu ne’ebé mak trata ho veteranu sira. Durante tinan 24 nia laran Timoroan sira luta iha foho leten. Bainhira funu hotu tiha ema hirak ne’ebé halo funu ne’e sai veteranu ba funu nian.

Mahein Nia Lian ne’e mos sita katak, Governu koko makaas ona atu rezolve problema sira ne’ebé relasionadu ho reintegrasaun veteranu sira nian, hanesan hodi kria lejizlasaun ne’ebé fó asisténsia ba veteranu sira iha forma ba pensaun no mós fó medalla. Medida hirak-ne’e seidauk to’o maibé nu’udár pasu ida ne’ebé mak iha diresaun ne’ebé loos. Maibé lei sira ne’ebé mak governu kria tiha ona ne’e seidauk implementa loloos tanba sistema ida ne’ebé mak praga ho falta ida iha rekursus umanus nian, no mós kapasidade governasaun nian ne’ebé limitadu.

Objetivu prinsipál husi artigu ida ne’e nian mak atu fó pontu jerál ida kona-bá problema komplikadu sira ne’ebé relasionadu ho reintegrasaun ba veteranu hotu-hotu, bazeia ba entrevista ne’ebé hala’o ona ho atór xave sira ne’ebé mak reprezenta distritu 5 iha Timor-Leste.  Distritu hirak-ne’e mak, Liquica, Ermera, Manatuto, Baucau, no Dili. Mahein Nia Lian ne’e nia rohan inklui rekomendasaun diagnóstika sira atu ajuda hodi rezolve veteranu nia problema sira, tantu iha prazu badak no mós ba prazu naruk nian. Ida-ne’e lá’os prosesu ida ne’ebé lais ka fásil. Vontade ne’ebé makaas no mós konsisténsia sei sai nesesáriu ba melloramentu progresiva.

Iha relatoriu ne’e mos FM rekomenda ba governu atu formalmente rekoñese knaar husi labarik sira ne’ebé sai soldadu. Bazeia ba lei internasionál nian ne’e viola konvensaun internasionál nian katak Timor-Leste ratifika ida-ne’e, maibé iha Timor-Leste nia istória labarik sira iha nasaun ne’e mós kontribui iha maneira ida ne’ebé signifikativu, ne’e duni, rekoñesimentu ba labarik sira ne’ebé sai soldadu ne’e komplikadu, maibé nesesáriu.

FM rekomenda ba governu atu dezenvolve no implementa polítika ida kona-bá funerál estadu nian ba veteranu sira inklui:

1. Parada no serimónia Guarda Onra nian ba funerál

2. Harii Semitériu ida ba Veteranu Rezisténsia nian iha distritu hotu-hotu.

Sujere katak grupu ki’ik ida husi soldadu F-FDTL sira mak diriji guarda onra nian ba veteranu sira atu partisipa iha serimónia funerál iha semitériu sira.

FM rekomenda ba governu atu implementa esbosu lei nebe’e esiste tiha, atu atoriza tur fatin especial iha area balun ba Veteranu durante cerimonia feriadu Nasional.

FM rekomenda ba governu atu dezeña no distribui iha ninia despeja rasik Tais espesiál ida ba veteranu sira hotu ne’ebé mak sria bele hatais iha eventu sira ne’ebé espesiál.

Imi bele hetan relatoriu iha ne’e.

Atu hatene klean liu konaba asuntu ne’e bele kontaktu.

Nélson Belo,

Direktor Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

Tlp:         +670 737 4222

Fundasaun Mahein, 23 March  2011

Press release

Veterans in Timor-Leste since the Crisis of 2006.

In the Voice of Fundasaun Mahein, 17th Edition we will discuss the issue of Veterans. The report stated that, the problem of veterans will never die if the individual veterans and veterans’ organizations are not happy with the process that deals with veterans. During 24 years Timorese struggled in the mountains.   After the war those who fought became war veterans.

Mahein Nia Lian also quoted that the government has tried hard to overcome the issues related to the reintegration of veterans, such as creating legislation which provided assistance to Veterans in the form of pensions and awarding medals.  These measures are not enough but are a step in the right direction.  However, these laws the government created have not been implemented properly due to a system that is plagued by a lack of human resources, and limited governance capacity.

The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the complicated problems related to the reintegration of all veterans, based on interviews with key actors representing 5 districts in Timor Leste.  Those districts are Liquica, Ermera, Manatuto, Baucau, and Dili.  The end of Mahein Nia Lian  includes diagnostic recommendations to help solve the veterans’ issues, both in the short and long term.  It is not a fast or easy process.  Strong will and consistency will be necessary for progressive improvement

FM recommends that the government formally recognize the role of child solders. Based on international law it violates the international convention that Timor- Leste has ratified, but in Timorese history the children of the country contributed in a very significant way, therefore, the recognition of child solders is complicated, but it is necessary.

FM recommends that the government develop and implement a policy for on state funerals for veterans including:

1. Parade and Honour Guard ceremony for funerals

2. Build a Cemetery for Veterans of the Resistance in all the districts.

It is suggested that a small group of F-FDTL soldiers lead the honor guard for veterans to participate in funeral ceremonies in the cemeteries.

FM recommends that the government implement and enforce the existing law to allow for a special seating area for Veterans during National Holiday ceremonies.

FM recommends that the government design and distribute at its own expense a special Tais for veterans which they can wear on special occasions

For more information on this issue, please contact

Nélson Belo,

Director of Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

Telp. +670 737 4222



UNTAS Rende/foti Lima

Hanoin lesuk hosi Fundasaun Mahein

17 Feb. 2011

Ema nebe’e hanoin aat ba nia rain rasik sei la’o lemo-lemo, muda hosi knua ida ba knua seluk iha ema nia rain, ikus mai sira deklara an katak, knua rasik mak diak liu” (Jose Freitas 15 Feb.2011)

Dala ruma liafuan senor Jose nia iha leten ne’e bele prega ba otonomista sira. Muda hosi organizasaun barbarak los hanesan Pemuda Pancasila, PPI, BRTT no ikus mai Uni Timor Asuwain (UNTAS) maibe lacente hakmatek ikus mai sira rekoinece independensia ba Timor-Leste. UNTAS  organizasaun sumbrina nebe’e iha matebian Abilio Osorio Soares nia okos,  ikus nian ne’ebe hari’i hosi Timor oan sira nebe’e pro-Indonezia iha 2000. Iha tinan 2000 halo nia kongresu dahuluk nebe’e hanaran Biti Boot Timoris hamahon an iha United Front for East Timor Autonomy-Front Persatuan Pendukung Otonomi (UNIF). Rezultadu kongresu I, UNTAS hasai nia paltaforma politik katak sei kontinua luta atu lori Timor-Leste hikas ba fali Republika Indonezia.

Tuir Politika estadu Indonezia nia ba Timor-Leste iha mudansa depois Timor-Leste deklara nia restorasaun independensia iha 20 Maiu 2002, ikus mai afeita boot ba UNTAS nia politika. Kongresu UNTAS daruak iha Dezembru 2010 iha Kupang Indonezia, no hili Eurico Guterres eis segundu komandante milisi pro-Indonezia nudar presidente. Rezultadu kongresu ne’e fo sai ba publiku katak UNTAS fo rekoinese pilitikamente ba Timor-Leste nia independensia. Ironiku liu maka iha Timor-Leste laiha media ida mak fosai konaba eventu nebe’e UNTAS deklara sai katak UNTAS rende ba sira nia objective politiku nebe’e fo sai iha kongresu dahuluk nian.

Tamba sa maka UNTAS tengki rende? Dala ruma resposta barak liu. Hahu 2004 familia hosi UNTAS fila ba mai Timor livre. Depois krize 2009 UNTAS nia liders sira  komesa mai visita Timor. Florentino Sarmento ho Norberta Belo hanesan mos ulun boot UNTAS nia  mai hela no servisu tiha ona iha Timor, celebrasaun independencia, loron 28 Novembru 2010 lideransa  UNTAS hanesan Armindo Soares Mariano mos mai asiste celebrasaun loron boot ne’e iha Palaciu Governu, no iha mos familia hosi ulun boot UNTAS mos fila no mai servisu dadaun ona iha Timor.

Razaun saida maka UNTAS muda nia politika no lider politikus UNTAS sira mos fila no balun komesa hela dadaun ona iha Timor? Razaun 1) fasil sira atu halo bisnis no bele kompete ba pozisaun politika iha governu ka partidu.  2) fasil atu hetan osan tamba ekonomikamente Timor-Leste dadaun ne’e diak liu tamba orsanmentu jeral Estadu tinan tinan aumenta makas no biban ba sira bele buka orsan. Rekonciliasaun mos kontinua akontece hosi aspeitu sira nebe’e informal sira ne’e duke ho dalan formal. Ne’e sorin ida.

Sorin seluk,  Eurico Guterres ho milisia nia boot sira seluk nebe’e involve iha krime graves bele fila ka lae? Dala ruma sira sei fila. Razaun ida katak sira mos Timor oan no konstitusaun RDTL fo biban ba sira atu mai hela nudar sidadaun Timor. Razaun seluk, Timor oan sira iha Timor mos haruka mensagem ba sira liu hosi PR Horta nia indultu ba arguidu sira ne’ebe komete krime iha krize 2006. Bazeia ba mensagem PR Horta katak, ita sunu uma no oho deit ema kiik iha 99 ne’e problema laseiru e kompara ho sira nebe’e involve iha krize 2006 ne’ebe oho ulun boot estadu ho governu RDTL hetan liberdade no mos governu RDTL for tan kompensasaun $8000 USD ba sira.  Kleur ka lalais, UNTAS nia ema sira sei no kontinua implementa mensagem Indulto hosi PR Horta atu fila hikas mai Timor.

Timor-Leste nudar nasaun hasoru problema barak tebes. Vitimas iha tinan 75, 99,  ho vitima krize 2006 no kontinua halerik ba justica, no nafatin sai isu nebe’e nonok maibe  tensaun. Seluk fali kazu kompensasaun ba veteranu, violencia social, korupsaun ne’ebe kontinua habokur nomeiru kiak. Buat sira ne’e hotu  afaita makas ba seitor siguransa iha Timor-Leste kontinua sai frajeil.

Nasaun foun maibe kontinua deut malu ho problema tuan, karik eis milisia ho lideres Pro-Indonezia fila hotu mai Timor-Leste sai rezulta problema hadau malu rai ho propredades, e mos aumenta tan dezempregu, ne’e parte ida, parte seluk, ho problema hirak ne’e tratamentu hosi governu sei la justu, maka sei hamosu klase riku ho kiak iha Timor-Leste makas tebtebes.

Hosi lidun ida, problem sira ne’e mos bele kria tan problma foun. Problema odiu malu ho vitima ho pro-otonimista sira nebe’e filla, ne’e sei involve familias sira iha distritus, sub-distritus, sukus ka aldeas bele rezulta komfrontasaun fizukas, depois estadu Timor-Leste laiha biban atu resolve diak, maka sei estraga kridibilidade estadu ho governu Timor-Leste.

Hosi UNTAS nia rekoinecementu ba Independencia Timor-Leste iha kongresu daruak ne’e hatudu katak sira prontu atu fila. Prosesu rekonciliasaun sei lao hosi familia ba familia.  Sinal diak ba Timor oan sira Hamutuk ida deit. Tensaun permanente ba pro-kontra Independensia bele minimize no biban atu lao ba dalan solusaun permanente. Depois hadia dadaun ona traumatiku hosi invasaun Indonezia bele rekopera, ne’e hatudu katak sinal ba Timor ida deit. Maibe karik ne’e labiban atu halo maka komfliku Timor entre Timor oan sira nunka hotu.

Fila ba Timor oan sira iha rai laran. Oinsa bele prontu simu Timor oan sira nebe’e mak atu fila ne’e ka lae? Se karik fila duni Estadu ho Governu Timor-Leste nia sei foti decisaun, e decisaun ne’e sei persizu vitima ka veteranu sira nia participasaun ka lae? Perguntas sira ne’ebe Fundasaun Mahein tenta soe ba leitor sira, oinsa bele provoka hanoin lesuk hodi buka solusaun ka responstas ba perguntas problematiku sira ne’e.

MAHEIN NIA LIAN NO. 13: Komunikadu da Imprenza: Kna’ar Falintil – Forsa Defesa Timor-Leste (F-FDTL) iha Faze Ukun Rasik A’an husi 2002 – 2010.

Fundasaun Mahein 28 Outubru 2010

Iha Fundasaun Mahein nia Lian edisaun no. 13 fokus ba iha Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (FALINTIL) hatudu ona nia didikasaun no komitmentu durante okupasaun Indonezia ne’ebe sai hanesan mos fundasaun ida ba F-FDTL sai Defesa Nasional ne’ebe iha prinsipiu neutraliadade iha sistema politik demokrasia Timor-Leste ninia. Mesmu F-FDTL nia abut husi partidu Fretilin ne’ebe nudar organizasaun hahoris naran Falintil, maibe transformasaun Falintil ba F-FDTL tenki iha prinsipiu imparsialidade atu garantia independesia no submete lolos nia a’an ba regras no leis iha rai Republika Demokratika Timor-Leste. Timor-Leste tama faze foun ona ho sistema forsa defesa nasional nebe sei buka lolos koloka kna’ar forsa defesa ninia atu labele iha konflitus politika siguransa iha rai laran. Premeira ves iha Timor-Leste nia istoria akontese instituisaun siguransa nasional hanesan F-FDTL no Polisia Nasional Timor-Leste (PNTL) sai hanesan hun ba konflitu no instabilidade iha tinan 2006.

Timor-Leste parese hatene katak laos selebrasaun mak sai hanesan objetivu fundamental ida ba instituisaun militar para tinan-tinan selebra nia aniversariu, maibe instituisaun militar ne’e persiza hare fila fali katak iha ona tinan walu (8) nia laran sai hanesan instituisaun formal militar ida iha nasaun demokratiku, persiza komesa hametin fundasaun disiplina no profesionalismu militar ba membru sira, ho objetivu katak militar tenki ho mentalidade atu defende interese povu laos interese institusionalidade (institusionalismu). Kestaun ne’e bele hare klean liu, tamba instituisaun laos atu representa grupu ou instituisaun maibe tenki halo sira nia kna’ar tuir konstituisaun haruka, “servisu militar halo tuir lei haruka.” Bazeia legal ne’e importante tebes ba membru militar sira wainhira sira halao servisu militar ninia no nee mos bele prevene politiku nain sira atu intervene ba organizasaun militar ninia. Leitura ida nee tenta atu examina kna’ar Forsa Defesa Timor-Leste liu husi loron nia asume responsabilidade hanesan forsa defeza nasional Timor-Leste iha 20 Maiu 2002 to’o 2010.

Wainhira asembleia nasional aprova konstituisaun no Timor-oan sira ofisialmente deklara Timor-Leste sai rai ida soberanu iha loron 20 Maiu 2002, iha tempu hanesan F-FDTL mos sai formalmente representa militar nasaun ida. Iha kapasidade profesionalismu no fasilidade ne’ebe limitadu teb-tebes, Timor-Leste konsege hahu instituisaun militar ida ne’ebe ho fiar ida katak sei lori interese nasional liu sasan hotu-hotu no garantia soberanu Timor-Leste. Iha FM nia relatoriu ne’e deskobre katak “dezenvolve forsa ida atu proteze Timor-oan husi ameasa liur, tulun azensia guvernu sira no hari’i ami nia rai.” Boa vontade husi Timor-Leste atu hari’i instituisaun militar hetan reasaun positivu husi komunidade internasional liu husi asistensia nasaun bar-barak. Liu husi kanal bilaterais husi Portugal, Australia, Estadu Unidos, Cina, Malaizia noTailandia liu husi treinamentu rai laran no liur, fo ikipamentu, hari’i fasilidade no treinamentu kona ba ajuda logistiku ninia.

Iha FM nia relatoriu ne’e mos deklara katak politikamente to’o ohin loron strutura liders F-FDTL sei domina husi eis membrus Falintil sira i maioria sira hotu foin mak apariende no hetan treinamentu profesional militar iha tempu badak idepois Timor-Leste hetan independensia. Nee mos sai obstaklu ida ba mediu prazu ninia atu dezenvolve lolos instituisaun militar ida ho independente no profesional tamba sei defisil ituan atu haketak Falinitl no F-FDTL.  Rees ispilika katak, “momentu transformasaun F-FDTL hanesan halo lalais liu, ne’e duni defisil ituan haketak F-FDTL husi nia abut Falintil, atu haketak sira bele hamosu interpertasaun negativu no bele interperta sala ba nia future dirasaun.” Husi kestaun nee bele dehan katak F-FDTL sidauk halao nia funsaun totalmente hanesan instituisaun militar profesional tamba emosionalmente no pisikoloziamente membrus eis Falintil sei defisil adapta no koloka sira nia a’an ba regras instituisaun militar. Istoria Falintil bele influenza hahalok no politika F-FDTL ninia iha kualker tempu.

Iha relatoriu ne’e mos FM rekomenda ba estadu no guvernu Timor-Leste iha area balun hakas a’an ona atu dezenvolve ninia instituisaun forsa armada sai hanesan militar profesional nebe hakruk a’an ba povu nia interese, espesialmente sivil mak kontrola institusaun militar ninia (Military under civilian control). Kestaun nee bele aplika iha Timor-Leste wainhira elementus hotu-hotu iha vontade politika atu kaer metin prinsipiu militar iha rai demokratiku. Timor-Leste persiza kria kondisaun ida par povu mak bele halo kontrolizasaun ba kna’ar militar ninia, liu-liu sosidade sivil bele iha kapasidade atu bele halo kontribuisaun no dezenvolvimentu atu kontrola lalaok militar. “Iha rai ida demokratika, sosidade sivil tenki bele hanoin halo nusa bele fo apoiu ideas par bele kontrola milita. Konaba aspeitu ida ne’e, estadu no guvernu nebe kaer pasta politika forsa defesa nia persiza mos involve sosidade sivil atu bele hatene klean liu kona ba politika defesa nia. Ministeriu Defesa hanesan parte sivil halo dadauk politika defesa nia, purtantu Timor-Leste bele dehan sivil mos hola parte ba prosesu hari’i funsionamentu F-FDTL.” Prosesu ne’e bele interperta katak sivil komesa iha parte ida kontrola lalaok militar nia liu husi alokasaun orsamentu halo politika atu hari’i no hametin instituisaun militar tuir regras demokrasia Timor-Leste ninia.

Instituisaun militar persiza hadia mentalidade membrus sira husi veteranu resistensia ba militar profesional no hanoin nasional ba kontekstu standar internasional. Membru sira persiza hasae sira nia matenek liu husi trainamentu no haruka sira bele iskola tan iha universidade konaba assuntus lei nian, justisa, direitus, saude buat seluk-seluk tan. Unversidade sira rai laran no liur mos bele servisu hamutuk ho instituisaun militar bele iha intreasaun enter estudante sira atraves husi siminariu, estaziu, peskiza, despotu, servisu sosial ho parte seluk-seluk tan. Instituisaun militar persiza loke a’an ba publiku para simu kritikas, sugestaun no intereasaun direitamente entre povu ho membru militar sira, nune sira bele hatene no habesik a’an ba instituisaun nee, loke mos debates ou siminariu bar-barak konaba kna’ar F-FDTL iha rai ida demokratiku.

Atu hatene klean liu konaba asuntu ne’e bele kontaktu.

Hetan relatoriu iha ne’e.

Nélson Belo,

Direktor Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

Tlp: +670 737 4222

Fundasaun Mahein, October  28,  2010

Press Release

Falintil-Forca Defensa Timor-Leste (F-FDTL) in the Era of Independence, 2002 to 2010.

In the 13th Mahein’s Voice (Mahein Nia Lian No. 13 in English) focuses to Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (FALINTIL) showed its dedication and commitment during the Indonesian occupation and became the foundation for F-FDTL, a national defense force that has the principle of neutrality within the democratic political system of Timor Leste. Although F-FDTL’s roots come from the FRETILIN party  the organization that produced the name FALINTIL- the transformation of FALINTIL to F-FDTL must have the principle of impartiality, in order to guarantee independence and truly submit itself to the regulations and laws of the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste. Timor Leste has entered a new phase  that searches for the right place and function of the defense force so that there is no conflict of security policy  in the country. For the first time in the history of Timor Leste, national security institutions such as F-FDTL and Timor Leste National Police (PNTL) became a major source of conflict and instability in 2006.

Timor Leste surely knows that celebrating their aniversary every year is not the fundamental objective of the military, but that the military institution needs to focus on how during eight years of becoming a formal military institution in a democratic country, they have continued to strengthen the foundation of discipline and military professionalism of their members, with a purpose of creating a military with a mentality of defending the interests of the people, not the interest of the institution (Institutionalism). An institution should not represent groups or institutions, but do its duty as the constitution requires. “Military duty is to follow the order of the Constitution”. This legal basis is very important for military members when they carry out their military duties as this can prevent politicians from intervening with military organisations. This article attempts to examine the role of F-FDTL since the day it acquired responsiblity as Timor Leste’s national defense force from 20 May 2002 until the present.

When the National Assembly approved the constitution and the East Timorese declared Timor Leste a sovereign nation-state on 20 May 2002,  the  F-FDTL also formally became the military representative of this country. With a very limited professional capacity and a lack of facilities, Timor Leste managed to form a military institution with the belief of considering the national interest over other things and guaranteeing the sovereignity of Timor Leste. In FM’s report also found that, “develop a force to protect the people of Timor Leste from outside threat, help the governmental agencies, and build our country”. The goodwill of Timor Leste in forming a military institution recieved positive feedback from the international community through the assistace of many countries – bilateral agreements with Portugal, Australia, the United States, China, Malaysia, and Thailand regarding both in-country training and training abroad, providing equipment, building facilities, and training about logistic assistance

In FM’s report said that, politically, the leadership structure of F-FDTL to this date is still dominated by the ex-members of FALINTIL and a majority of them learned and received professional military training for only a very short time after Timor Leste gained its independence. This is an obstacle to really developing a military institution that is independent and professional because it is  diffcult to separate FALINTIL and F-FDTL. Edward Rees explains that “the moment of F-FDTL transformation was too soon so it is quite difficult to separate F-FDTL from its root FALINTIL because separating them could cause negative interpretation and wrong interpretation to its future direction.” From this case, it could be said that F-FDTL has not achieved its function completely as a professional military institution because emotionally and psycologically members of ex FALINTIL have difficulty adapting and putting themselves under the regulations of the military institution. The history of FALINTIL has the ability to influence the behavior and politics of F-FDTL at any time.

In the report FM also recommends that, the State or governent of Timor Leste has forced their army institution in some ways to become a more professional military that bows to the interest of the people, especially by putting the military under civilian control. This case will be fully applied in Timor Leste when all the members have the political willingness to hold the military to the principles of a democratic country. Timor Leste needs to create a condition where its’ people can control the military. Civil society can contribute to the development of military activities. “In a democratic country, civil society should be able to think about how to give supportive ideas to control the military. Along these lines, the government that makes defence force policy also needs to involve civil society more, in order for them to know more about defense policy.The Ministry of Defense, as well as civil society, is making defence policy. It could be said that civilians can also take part in the process of development of F-FDTL in Timor Leste. This process could be interpreted as civilians begining to control military activity through budget allocation to make policies that build and strenghten the military institution according to the regulations of democratic Timor Leste.

The military institution needs to improve the mentality of its members, moving from that ofa resistance organization to that of a professional military, who think in the context of international standards. They need to increase their knowledge through training and also attend university where they can study law, justice, rights, health and other things. Universities in this country and abroad can also work together with the military institution to have an interaction between students.  This could involve seminars, research, sports, social services, and other components. The military institution needs to be open when receiving public criticisms and suggestions, and increase their direct interactions with the people so that they know and get close to the institution. Open debates and seminars about the role of F-FDTL in a democratic country are also useful in helping the public understand what F-FDTL actually does.

For more informasaun on this issue, please contact

To download the report in english click here.

Nélson Belo,

Director of Fundasaun Mahein

Web: www.fundasaunmahein.wordpress.com

Email: direktor.mahein[at]gmail.com

tlp :  +670 737 4222